70阅读 0评论2020-02-26 hiyachen

MIPS Architecture and Assembly Language Overview  MIPS架构及其汇编初步

1: 寄存器种类;

2: 算术及寻址指令

3: 程序结构

4: 系统调用 

 Data Types and Literals  数据类型(及字符)

Data types:数据类型

Instructions are all 32 bits 所有MIPS指令都是32位长的 byte(8 bits), halfword (2 bytes), word (4 bytes) 各单位:1字节=8位,半字长=2个字节,1字长=4个字节 a character requires 1 byte of storage 一个字符空间=1个字节 an integer requires 1 word (4 bytes) of storage 一个整型=一个字长=4个字节


numbers entered as is. e.g. 4 数字就是数字,例如:4 characters enclosed in single quotes. e.g. 'b' 单个字符用单引号,例如:'b' strings enclosed in double quotes. e.g. "A string" 字符串用双引号,例如:"A string"

Registers 寄存器

32 general-purpose registers MIPS下一共有32个通用寄存器 register preceded by $ in assembly language instruction 在汇编中,寄存器标志由$符开头
two formats for addressing: 寄存器表示可以有两种方式: using register number e.g. $0 through $31 直接使用该寄存器对应的编号,例如:从$0到$31 using equivalent names e.g. $t1, $sp 使用对应的寄存器名称,例如:$t1, $sp(详细含义,下文有表格special registers Lo and Hi used to store result of multiplication and division 对于乘法和除法分别有对应的两个寄存器$lo, $hi not directly addressable; contents accessed with special instruction mfhi ("move from Hi") and mflo ("move from Lo") 对于以上二者,不存在直接寻址;必须要通过mfhi("move from hi")以及mflo("move from lo")分别来进行访问对应的内容 stack grows from high memory to low memory 栈的走向是从高地址到低地址
This is from Figure 9.9 in the Goodman&Miller text

Register Number 寄存器编号 Alternative Name 寄存器名      Description 寄存器用途


the value 0  永远返回零


(assembler temporary) reserved by the assembler


$v0 - $v1

(values) from expression evaluation and function results


$a0 - $a3

(arguments) First four parameters for subroutine.
Not preserved across procedure calls


$t0 - $t7

(temporaries) Caller saved if needed. Subroutines can use w/out saving.
Not preserved across procedure calls


$s0 - $s7

(saved values) - Callee saved. 
A subroutine using one of these must save original and restore it before exiting.
Preserved across procedure calls (Saved or Static简写?)静态变量?调用时保存

$t8 - $t9

(temporaries) Caller saved if needed. Subroutines can use w/out saving.
These are in addition to $t0 - $t7 above.
Not preserved across procedure calls. (Temp简写)算是前面$0~$7的一个继续,属性同$t0~$t7

$k0 - $k1

reserved for use by the interrupt/trap handler (breaK off简写?)中断函数返回值,不可做其他用途


global pointer. Points to the middle of the 64K block of memory in the static data segment.

Global Pointer简写)指向64k(2^16)大小的静态数据块的中间地址(字面上好像就是这个意思,块的中间)


stack pointer  Points to last location on the stack.

(Stack Pointer简写)栈指针,指向的是栈顶


saved value / frame pointer  Preserved across procedure calls

(Saved/Frame Pointer简写)帧指针


return address  返回地址,目测也是不可做其他用途

 Program Structure  程序结构

just plain text file with data declarations, program code (name of file should end in suffix .s to be used with SPIM simulator) 其实就只是数据声明+普通文本+程序编码(文件后缀为.s,或者.asm也行) data declaration section followed by program code section 数据声明在代码段之后(其实在其之前也没啥问题,也更符合高级程序设计的习惯)

 Data Declarations  数据声明

placed in section of program identified with assembler directive .data 数据段以 .data为开始标志 declares variable names used in program; storage allocated in main memory (RAM) 声明变量后,即在主存中分配空间。

Code  代码

placed in section of text identified with assembler directive .text 代码段以 .text为开始标志 contains program code (instructions) 其实就是各项指令操作 starting point for code e.g.ecution given label main: 程序入口为main:标志(这个都一样啦) ending point of main code should use exit system call (see below under System Calls) 程序结束标志(详见下文)


anything following # on a line  同C系语言
# This stuff would be considered a comment Template for a MIPS assembly language program: MIPS程序的基本模板如下:
  1. # Comment giving name of program and description of function# 说明下程序的目的和作用(其实和高级语言都差不多了)
  2. # Template.s
  3. # Bare-bones outline of MIPS assembly language program
  4. .data # variable declarations follow this line     # 数据变量声明
  5. # ...
  6. .text # instructions follow this line
  7. # 代码段部分
  8. main: # indicates start of code (first instruction to execute) # 主程序
  9. # ...
  10. # End of program, leave a blank line afterwards to make SPIM happy# 必须多给你一行,你才欢?

Data Declarations  数据声明

format for declarations: 声明的格式:

name: storage_type value(s)	变量名:(冒号别少了)     数据类型         变量值 
create storage for variable of specified type with given name and specified value value(s) usually gives initial value(s); for storage type .space, gives number of spaces to be allocated 通常给变量赋一个初始值;对于.space,需要指明需要多少大小空间(bytes)

Note: labels always followed by colon ( : )

  1. example
  2. var1: .word 3 # create a single integer variable with initial value 3                   # 声明一个 word 类型的变量 var1, 同时给其赋值为 3
  3. array1: .byte 'a','b' # create a 2-element character array with elements initialized
  4. # to a and b                   # 声明一个存储2个字符的数组 array1,并赋值 'a', 'b'
  5. array2: .space 40 # allocate 40 consecutive bytes, with storage uninitialized
  6. # could be used as a 40-element character array, or a
  7. # 10-element integer array; a comment should indicate which!                    # 为变量 array2 分配 40字节(bytes)未使用的连续空间,当然,对于这个变量                   # 到底要存放什么类型的值, 最好事先声明注释下!

 Load / Store Instructions  加载/保存(也许这里写成读取/写入 可能更易理解一点) 指令集

RAM access only allowed with load and store instructions 如果要访问内存,不好意思,你只能用 load 或者 store 指令 all other instructions use register operands 其他的只能都一律是寄存器操作


 lw register_destination, RAM_source

#copy word (4 bytes) at source RAM location to destination register.

从内存中 复制 RAM_source 的内容到 对应的寄存器中


 lb register_destination, RAM_source

#copy byte at source RAM location to low-order byte of destination register,
# and sign-e.g.tend to higher-order bytes

同上, lb 意为 load byte

store word:

 sw register_source, RAM_destination

#store word in source register into RAM destination

#将指定寄存器中的数据 写入 到指定的内存中

 sb register_source, RAM_destination

#store byte (low-order) in source register into RAM destination

load immediate:

 li register_destination, value

#load immediate value into destination register

顾名思义,这里的 li 意为 load immediate

  1. example:
  2. .data
  3. var1: .word 23 # declare storage for var1; initial value is 23
  4.                    # 先声明一个 word 型的变量 var1 = 3;
  5. .text
  6. __start:
  7. lw $t0, var1 # load contents of RAM location into register $t0: $t0 = var1                   # 令寄存器 $t0 = var1 = 3;
  8. li $t1, 5 # $t1 = 5 ("load immediate")                   # 令寄存器 $t1 = 5;
  9. sw $t1, var1 # store contents of register $t1 into RAM: var1 = $t1                   # 将var1的值修改为$t1中的值: var1 = $t1 = 5;
  10. done

Indirect and Based Addressing  立即与间接寻址

Used only with load and store instructions

load address: 直接给地址

 la $t0, var1
copy RAM address of var1 (presumably a label defined in the program) into register $t0

indirect addressing: 地址是寄存器的内容(可以理解为指针)

 lw $t2, ($t0)
load word at RAM address contained in $t0 into $t2
 sw $t2, ($t0)
store word in register $t2 into RAM at address contained in $t0

based or indexed addressing:+偏移量

 lw $t2, 4($t0)
load word at RAM address ($t0+4) into register $t2 "4" gives offset from address in register $t0
 sw $t2, -12($t0)
store word in register $t2 into RAM at address ($t0 - 12) negative offsets are fine

Note: based addressing is especially useful for: 不必多说,要用到偏移量的寻址,基本上使用最多的场景无非两种:数组,栈。

arrays; access elements as offset from base address stacks; easy to access elements at offset from stack pointer or frame pointer
  1. example:栗子:
  2. .data
  3. array1: .space 12 # declare 12 bytes of storage to hold array of 3 integers                        # 定义一个 12字节 长度的数组 array1, 容纳 3个整型
  4. .text
  5. __start: la $t0, array1 # load base address of array into register $t0                        # 让 $t0 = 数组首地址
  6. li $t1, 5 # $t1 = 5 ("load immediate")
  7. sw $t1, ($t0) # first array element set to 5; indirect addressing                        # 对于 数组第一个元素赋值 array[0] = $1 = 5
  8. li $t1, 13 # $t1 = 13
  9. sw $t1, 4($t0) # second array element set to 13                        # 对于 数组第二个元素赋值 array[1] = $1 = 13                         # (该数组中每个元素地址相距长度就是自身数据类型长度,即4字节, 所以对于array+4就是array[1])
  10. li $t1, -7 # $t1 = -7
  11. sw $t1, 8($t0) # third array element set to -7                        # 同上, array+8 = (address[array[0])+4)+ 4 = address(array[1]) + 4 = address(array[2])
  12. done

Arithmetic Instructions 算术指令集

most use 3 operands 最多3个操作数 all operands are registers; no RAM or indirect addressing 再说一遍,在这里,操作数只能是寄存器,绝对不允许出现地址 operand size is word (4 bytes) 所有指令统一是32位 = 4 * 8 bit = 4bytes = 1 word

  add $t0,$t1,$t2 # $t0 = $t1 + $t2; add as signed (2's complement) integers

  1. sub $t2,$t3,$t4 # $t2 = $t3 ? $t4
  2. addi $t2,$t3, 5 # $t2 = $t3 + 5; "add immediate" (no sub immediate)
  3. addu $t1,$t6,$t7 # $t1 = $t6 + $t7; add as unsigned integers
  4. subu $t1,$t6,$t7 # $t1 = $t6 + $t7; subtract as unsigned integers
  5. mult $t3,$t4 # multiply 32-bit quantities in $t3 and $t4, and store 64-bit
  6. # result in special registers Lo and Hi: (Hi,Lo) = $t3 * $t4                         运算结果存储在hi,lohi高位数据, lo地位数据)
  7. div $t5,$t6 # Lo = $t5 / $t6 (integer quotient)
  8. # Hi = $t5 mod $t6 (remainder)                         商数存放在 lo, 余数存放在 hi
  9. mfhi $t0 # move quantity in special register Hi to $t0: $t0 = Hi                         不能直接获取 hilo中的值, 需要mfhi, mflo指令传值给寄存器
  10. mflo $t1 # move quantity in special register Lo to $t1: $t1 = Lo
  11. # used to get at result of product or quotient
  12. move $t2,$t3 # $t2 = $t3

Control Structures 控制流

Branches 分支(if else系列)

comparison for conditional branches is built into instruction
  1. b target # unconditional branch to program label target
  2. beq $t0,$t1,target # branch to target if $t0 = $t1
  3. blt $t0,$t1,target # branch to target if $t0 < $t1
  4. ble $t0,$t1,target # branch to target if $t0 <= $t1
  5. bgt $t0,$t1,target # branch to target if $t0 > $t1
  6. bge $t0,$t1,target # branch to target if $t0 >= $t1
  7. bne $t0,$t1,target # branch to target if $t0 <> $t1

Jumps 跳转(while, for, goto系列)

 j target      # unconditional jump to program label target                           看到就跳, 不用考虑任何条件 jr $t3 # jump to address contained in $t3 ("jump register")                          类似相对寻址,跳到该寄存器给出的地址处

Subroutine Calls  子程序调用

subroutine call: "jump and link" instruction

 jal sub_label #  "jump and link"
copy program counter (return address) to register $ra (return address register) 将当前的程序计数器保存到 $ra 中 jump to program statement at sub_label

subroutine return: "jump register" instruction

 jr $ra #  "jump register"
jump to return address in $ra (stored by jal instruction) 通过上面保存在  $ra 中的计数器返回调用前

Note: return address stored in register $ra; if subroutine will call other subroutines, or is recursive, return address should be copied from $ra onto stack to preserve it, since jal always places return address in this register and hence will overwrite previous value

如果说调用的子程序中有调用了其他子程序,如此往复, 则返回地址的标记就用 栈(stack) 来存储, 毕竟 $ra 只有一个 。

System Calls and I/O (SPIM Simulator)  系统调用 与 输入/输出(主要针对SPIM模拟器)

used to read or print values or strings from input/output window, and indicate program end 通过系统调用实现终端的输入输出,以及声明程序结束 use syscall operating system routine call 学会使用 syscall first supply appropriate values in registers $v0 and $a0-$a1 参数所使用的寄存器:$v0, $a0,  $a1 result value (if any) returned in register $v0 返回值使用: $v0

The following table lists the possible syscall services.


Code in $v0 对应功能的调用码     Arguments 所需参数 Results 返回值  Service



$v0 = 1

$a0 = integer to be printed

将要打印的整型赋值给 $a0




$v0 = 2

$f12 = float to be printed

将要打印的浮点赋值给 $f12




$v0 = 3

$f12 = double to be printed

将要打印的双精度赋值给 $f12

$v0 = 4

$a0 = address of string in memory

将要打印的字符串的地址赋值给 $a0

$v0 = 5

integer returned in $v0

将读取的整型赋值给 $v0



$v0 = 6

float returned in $v0

将读取的浮点赋值给 $v0



$v0 = 7

double returned in $v0

将读取的双精度赋值给 $v0



$v0 = 8

$a0 = memory address of string input buffer

将读取的字符串地址赋值给 $a0
$a1 = length of string buffer (n)

将读取的字符串长度赋值给 $a1





$v0 = 9

$a0 = amount

需要分配的空间大小(单位目测是字节 bytes)

address in $v0

将分配好的空间首地址给 $v0



$v0 =10
<td style= 
The print_string service expects the address to start a null-terminated character string. The directive .asciiz creates a null-terminated character string. 大概意思是要打印的字符串应该有一个终止符,估计类似C中的'\0', 在这里我们只要声明字符串为 .asciiz 类型即可。
下面给个我用Mars4.4的提示: 【十分钟教会你汇编】MIPS编程入门(妈妈说标题要高大上,才会有人看>_ .ascii 与 .asciiz唯一区别就是 后者会在字符串最后自动加上一个终止符, 仅此而已
The read_int, read_float and read_double services read an entire line of
 input up to and including the newline character.
对于读取整型, 浮点型,双精度的数据操作, 系统会读取一整行,(也就是说以换行符为标志 '\n')
The read_string service has the same semantices as the UNIX library 
routine fgets.
It reads up to n-1 characters into a buffer and terminates the string 
with a null character.
If fewer than n-1 characters are in the current line, it reads up to and
 including the newline and terminates the string with a null character.
The sbrk service returns the address to a block of memory containing n 
additional bytes. This would be used for dynamic memory allocation.
The exit service stops a program from running.
你懂得。。。<img src=
  • e.g. Print out integer value contained in register $t2栗子: 打印一个存储在寄存器 $2 里的整型
  • li $v0, 1 # load appropriate system call code into register $v0;                             声明需要调用的操作代码为 1 (print_int) 并赋值给 $v0
  • # code for printing integer is 1
  • move $a0, $t2 # move integer to be printed into $a0: $a0 = $t2                             将要打印的整型赋值给 $a0 syscall # call operating system to perform operation

  • e.g. Read integer value, store in RAM location with label int_value (presumably declared in data section)栗子: 读取一个数,并且存储到内存中的 int_value 变量中
  • li $v0, 5 # load appropriate system call code into register $v0; # code for reading integer is 5                             声明需要调用的操作代码为 5 (read_int) 并赋值给 $v0  syscall # call operating system to perform operation、                             经过读取操作后, $v0 的值已经变成了 输入的 5 sw $v0, int_value # value read from keyboard returned in register $v0; # store this in desired location                             通过写入(store_word)指令 将 $v0的值(5) 存入 内存中         

  • e.g. Print out string (useful for prompts)栗子: 打印一个字符串(这是完整的,其实上面栗子都可以直接替换main: 部分,都能直接运行) .data string1 .asciiz "Print this.\n" # declaration for string variable, # .asciiz directive makes string null terminated .text main: li $v0, 4 # load appropriate system call code into register $v0; # code for printing string is 4                             打印字符串, 赋值对应的操作代码 $v0 = 4 la $a0, string1 # load address of string to be printed into $a0                             将要打印的字符串地址赋值 $a0 = address(string1) syscall # call operating system to perform print operation e.g. To indicate end of program, use exit system call; thus last lines of program should be:执行到这里, 程序结束
    li $v0, 10      # system call code for exit = 10
    syscall # call operating sys
  • 1.Mars4.4 2.PCSpim Simulator 3.MIPS Qucik Tutorial》